APA style citation

Overview

(See below for specifics on reference entries and on how to cite in your essay itself.)

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"When do I cite a source?"
Whenever you include a word, phrase, or idea from a source, it needs to be cited.  That source can include a web page, classroom lecture, an interview with your Uncle Pete, a quote or summary from a book, magazine, etc.  And note the "a" word: singular.  Even a single word from someone else, when included in your own essay, needs to be set off with quotation marks and then cited.

"When do I use APA?"
In general, classes in the Sciences (including sociology and psychology) use APA (American Psychological Association) style citation.  You should always check with your professor and ask which style they would prefer for a particular assignment.

"How do I cite using APA?"
Because of the rapid changes in scientific knowledge, dates are especially important when using APA citation. A complete citation consists of two parts: an in-text citation (which includes the author's last, date, and the page number if from a print source and in a direct quote) and an entry on a List of References page at end of essay. Use the examples below as a rough guide.

1) Sample In-Text Citation (the part that goes in your essay)

Work for a living? Feeling a bit poor lately? The link between the two is not difficult to explain when you examine recent pay raises. In 1997, the average worker received a raise of 3 percent. Her CEO? Many earned a 21 percent raise (Cooper, 1997).

Note that the author's last name and year of publication is enclosed in parenthesis and that the period goes to the right of the parenthesis.

2) Sample References Entry (the part that goes on a "References" page at the end) for in-text citation above:

Cooper, M. (1997). Income Inequality. CQ Researcher, 17,  337 -360.

Together, these two parts let the reader know who wrote your article, where they can find it, and approximately how long the article is.

This two part citation method works like a code. In general, the reader looks for the author's name in the in-text citation (or the first word of the title if there is no author), and then goes to the Reference page entry for additional information. Your job is to supply the correct parts of the code in the correct order.

You have to be sure that the name/word you include in your in-text citation will match the first word of one of your Reference entries. Thus, the word “Cooper” from the in-text example above (in the parenthesis) matches the word “Cooper” in the sample Reference entry.

Readers would see the citation (Cooper, 1997) and instantly know that the information before the citation is from a writer named “Cooper” and that the information is from the year 1997. If they wanted to check your source, they would turn to the References page and scan the first word of the alphabetically arranged list until the word “Cooper” appeared.

The Specifics
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Below you'll find links for commonly used sources from OCC's library.

First determine what kind of source you're taking information from -- an anthology? online database? -- then click on the link for a sample Reference page entry and in-text citation.


Remember that these entries must be alphabetized on a "References" page.  See Formatting Essays for examples.

Print

Online

Other

  • Book
  • Book with Two Authors
  • Anthology (Book) Collections of essays or fiction in one book, such as  Sources of the Western Tradition, Norton Anthology, Opposing Viewpoints, etc.

For more complete information on these and other citation methods, go to Purdue's Online Writing lab. For an even more detailed explanation of APA citation, go to Lydia M. Olsen Library APA page.


Print Sources

Article from an Anthology (see below for several examples)
References Entry Writing the World

Wilson, W. (2000) When Work Disappears. In C. Cooper, & S. Peck

MacDonald (Eds.), Writing the world (pp. 356-362). Boston/New

York: Bedford/St. Martin's.

In-text citations for entry above:
Direct quote:
Urban ghettos were never a matter of choice. As Williams (2000) notes, “If large segments of the African-American population had not been historically segregated in inner-city ghettos, we would not be talking about the new urban poverty” (p. 361). And this poverty is a direct result of a pattern of racism that affects education and job choice, and thus economic status.

Direct Quote of more than four lines on your page:
Another problem with ghettos is that they limit job choices for those that live there. Williams (2000) argues that

Segregated ghettos are less conducive to employment and employment preparation than are other areas of the city. Segregation in ghettos exacerbates employment problems because it leads to weak informal employment networks and contributes to the social isolation of individuals and families, thereby reducing their chances of acquiring the human capital skills, including adequate educational training [. . .] that facilitate mobility in a society. (p. 361)

This would help explain why people who are raised in ghettos have fewer job opportunities than those that grow up in the suburbs. 

Note ellipsis for excluded words in square brackets.  Three dots are used because the words removed are within a sentence.

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Anthology Series (Taking Sides, Opposing Viewpoints, etc.)
References Entry Opposing Viewpoints:
Marsh, D. (1989). America's Values Are Found in Its Documents. In

D. Bender  (Ed.), American Values: Opposing Viewpoints (pp.

17-25). San Diego: Greenhaven Press.


In-text citation for entry above:
Partial direct quote: From Opposing Viewpoints
For our political system to function, our electorate needs a basic understanding of the underpinnings of democracy. Daniel L. Marsh (1989), former president of Boston College, argues that Americans "must have an intelligent comprehension of the ideas and ideals that underlie our [. . .] democracy" (p. 18). His emphasis on "intelligent comprehension" supports the view that the dreaded civics class needs to be revitalized.

Note ellipsis for excluded words in square brackets.  Three dots are used because the words removed are within a sentence.

MATERIAL BY EDITOR IN AN ANTHOLOGY
References Entry:
Cooper, C. & Peck MacDonald, S. (Eds). (2000). Writing the world. 

Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.

In-text citation for entry above
Direct Quote
To fully engage in American culture, Charles Cooper and Susan Peck MacDonald  write, "means entering the conversation finding out what others think, figuring out what you think, and gaining a deeper understanding of the world you live in" (p. 1).

Article from CQ Researcher (Print)
References Entry:
Cooper, M. (1997). Income inequality. CQ Researcher 10: 337-360. 

Author's Last name, First Initial. (Year published). Title with first word capitalized. Title of Journal Volume: pages from beginning to end.

In-text citation for entry above
Summarized source
:
Work for a living? Feeling a bit poor lately? The link between the two is not difficult to explain when you examine recent pay raises. In 1997, the average worker received a raise of 3 percent. Her CEO? Many earned a 21 percent raise (Cooper, 1997). Feeling a bit angry now? 

Book
References Entry
Hirsch, E. (1987). Cultural literacy: what every american needs

to know. New York: Vintage Books. 

In-text citation for entry above
Direct Quote
Hirsch (1987) warns that focusing only on a particular trade or field can ultimately limit a person's career choices: "Narrow vocational training in one state of a technology will not enable a person to read manuals that explain new developments in the same technology.  In modern life we need general knowledge that enables us to deal with new ideas, events, and challenges" (p. 11).  Embracing all the knowledge that a culture offers, including literature, music, art, mathematics, history, and the sciences, amounts to job security, because it gives students the skills to face any intellectual -- or employment --  challenge. 

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Magazine (Print)
References Entry
Levinson, M. & Rich T. (1996, Jan. 15). One tax fits all.

Newsweek, p. 38.

In-text citation for entry above
Summary:
A flat tax rate sounds like a good idea, but as Levinson and Thomas (1996) argue, it would amount to higher taxes for the working class, and no taxes at all for the leisure class -- those people who live off money handed down to them.

Newspaper (Print)
References Entry:
James, C. (1995, Dec. 3). Dysfunction wears out its welcome. New

York Times, pp. H1, H23.

If source was in a numbered section, use the following format
James, C (1995, Dec. 3). Dysfunction wears out its welcome. New

York Times, pp. sec. 3:1, 3:23.

In-text citation for entry above
Partial direct quote – ellipsis dots rule is three if within sentence, four if subtracted phrase include a period.  Use brackets to separate your ellipsis from the quote
After analyzing current sitcoms, James (1995) discovers that "[. . .] they have come to resemble melodrama and soap opera more than they reflect comic versions of real life" (p H1).

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Encyclopedia (note: usually only signed articles are acceptable for academic essays)
References Entry:
Frueh, C. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder.  In A. Kazdin

(Ed.) Encyclopedia of Psychology (vols. 1-6), New York:

Oxford University Press.

In-text citation for entry above:
Frueh (2000) reports that Psychologists believe one of the main features of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is that the "event is persistently reexperienced" (p. 249).

Book with Two or More Authors
References Entry:
Phelps, T & Winternitz H. (1993). Capital Games. New York: Harper

Perennial.

In-text citation for entry above
Direct quote:
In their examination of the Anita Hill and Clarence Thomas controversy, Phelps and Winternitz (1993) come to the ominous conclusion that either "a Supreme Court justice had committed perjury to get himself on the bench or Hill and his opponents had engaged in an unprecedented criminal conspiracy in an attempt to defeat him" (p. 441). From the evidence in their book, it seems that someone has committed perjury.

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Online Sources

College Databases

Magazine (EBSCOHost)
First, determine if your source is a scholarly journal (published quarterly -- it will say Fall, or Winter, and in most cases the pages will continue from issue to the next) or monthly/weekly magazine -- both are formatted differently.

Magazine: Scholarly Journal (published quarterly)
References Entry:
Domhnall, M. (2001). The grammar of ornament: emily dickinson's

manuscripts and their meanings. Nineteenth-Century Literature, 55(4)

179-204. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.


Author's last name, first initial. (Year published). Title of article

with first word in title caps. Title of Journal, Volume(Number):

Pages from beginning to end of article.

Retrieved from name of database.

In-text citation for entry above:
Direct quote:
Domhnal (2001) notes that “some critics allege that to read Dickinson in any standard typographic edition is effectively to read her in translation.” This suggests that the usual method of reading a poem in a textbook doesn't always reveal a writer's intention.
Note: because this is an online source, no page numbers are cited. Author's name must be included. If no author, use initial words of title for in-text citation. If a PDF version of file is available, use that version and cite page number.

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Magazine: (published monthly/weekly)
References Entry:
Levinson, M. & Thomas, R. (1996, Jan. 15) One tax fits all. Newsweek  

Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.


In-text citation for entry above
:
Summary:
A flat tax rate sounds like a good idea, but as Levinson and Thomas (1996) argue, it would amount to higher taxes for the working class, and no taxes at all for the leisure class -- those people who live off money handed down to them.
Note: because this is an online source, no page numbers are cited. Author's name must be included. If no author, use initial words of title for in-text citation. If a PDF version of file is available, use that version and cite page number.

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Lexis-Nexis
References Entry:
James, C. (1995, December 3). Dysfunction wears out its welcome. New

York Times, pp. H1, H23. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis.

In-text citation for entry above:
Partial direct quote:
After analyzing sitcoms from the early 90s, James (1995) discovers that "they have come to resemble melodrama and soap opera more than they reflect comic versions of real life." James believes that sitcoms are supposed to reflect "real life" and thus are no longer relevant.
Note: because this is an online source, no page numbers are cited. Author's name must be included. If no author, use initial words of title for in-text citation. If a PDF version of file is available, use that version and cite page number.

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Proquest (New York Times)
References Entry:

James, C. (1995, December 3). Dysfunction wears out its welcome. New York Times,

pp. H1, H23. Retrieved from Proquest.

In-text citation for entry above:
Partial direct quote:
After analyzing sitcoms from the early 90s, James (1995) discovers that "they have come to resemble melodrama and soap opera more than they reflect comic versions of real life." James believes that sitcoms are supposed to reflect "real life" and thus are no longer relevant.
Note: because this is an online source, no page numbers are cited. Author's name must be included. If no author, use initial words of title for in-text citation. If a PDF version of file is available, use that version and cite page number.

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SIRS
References Entry:
Elson, J. (1995, Nov. 12). The test that everyone fears. Time, 

Retrieved from SIRS Knowledge Source.

In-text citation for entry above:
Partial direct quote (remember that you do not have to cite the entire sentence if it is not needed) and paraphrase:
Testing by University of Georgia psychologist Dr. Stuart Katz showed that university students "correctly answered [. . .] 38% of the multiple choice comprehension questions without even reading the test selections" (as cited in Elson, 1995). To answer a third of the questions through sheer luck illustrates the need to eliminate multiple choice evaluation.

Note: because this is an online source, no page numbers are cited. Author's name must be included. If no author, use initial words of title for in-text citation. If a PDF version of file is available, use that version and cite page number.

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Opposing Viewpoints
References Entry:

Bennett, W. (2000). America faces a moral crisis. In Hurley, J. (Ed.)

Opposing Viewpoints: American Values. Retrieved from Opposing

Viewpoints Resources Center.


In-text citation for entry above:
Partial direct quote
The professed gambler Bennet (2000) – he of Book of Virtues infamy – illustrates this conservative hypocrisy. While he spends millions in gambling, he argues that it is not those of moral rectitude, like himself, that are despoiling his precious America, but others who suffer from “spiritual acedia.” But I have a question for Mr. Bennet: where in the bible does it say “Thou shalt lose millions at the green velvet tables of Las Vegas and Atlantic City”? He is a walking example of the difficulties of accusing others of leading an immoral life: and given his knowledge of the bible, he should know the danger of casting the first stone.
Note: because this is an online source, no page numbers are cited. Author's name must be included. If no author, use initial words of title for in-text citation. If a PDF version of file is available, use that version and cite page number.

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EBSCOHOST CINHAL with DOI number
References Entry: (Scholarly Journal)

Grossman, J., Donaldson, S., Belton, L., & Oliver, R. (2008).

5 A's smoking cessation with recovering women in treatment.

Journal of Addictions Nursing, 19(1): 1-8.

doi: 10.1080/10884600801896918

Description of above entry

Author's names. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal,

Volume(Number): Pages from beginning to end of article.

DOI number, usually found on first page of document.

In-text citation for entry above:
Partial direct quote
Research suggests that "18% of pregnant women continue to smoke" (Grossman, Donaldson, Belton & Oliver, 2003).

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General Internet Sources

Internet site
References Entry:

Harlow, H. (n.d.). The nature of love. Retrieved from

 http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/harlow.htm.
 

NOTE: (n.d.) above stands for no date. If available, the date of article would go in the parenthesis.

In-text citation for entry above
Summary
At least one study suggests that tactical stimulation is just as important as food for nurture (Harlow, n.d.).

Note: because this is an online source, no page numbers are cited. Author's name must be included. If no author, use initial words of title for in-text citation. If a PDF version of file is available, use that version and cite page number.
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Magazine/Newspaper site
References Entry:

Lopez, K. (2004 August 5, 2004). Not your father's labor union.

National Review  Online. Retrieved from

http://www.nationalreview.com/interrogatory/chavez 200408050802.asp

 


In-text citation for entry above
:
Direct Quote
Linda Chavez, at the end of her union bashing screed, states "I know unions are corrupt" (Lopez, 2004).  What's missing in this essay on the influence of union money in political campaigns is any mention of corporate influence on the political process.  In the world that Lopez inhabits, big, bad unions are scourges out of touch with mainstream America.  But if it wasn't for labor unions, and the combined money they can bring to the political arena, would any politicians pay (no pun intended) attention to labor concerns -- in other words, would they even listen to workers?  That's a question that Lopez and her fellow writers at The National Review are not prepared to answer -- though they're more than ready to scare workers away from unions.
Note: because this is an online source, no page numbers are cited. Author's name must be included. If no author, use initial words of title for in-text citation. If a PDF version of file is available, use that version and cite page number.

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Course Site
References Entry
Bordelon, D. (2000). Introduction. Retrieved from

http://classroom.blackboard.net/courses/ENG257/index.html.

In-text citation for entry above:
Direct quote
The brilliant literary scholar Bordelon (2000) argues that literature is the stuff of life:

After all, literature in general . . . is about love lost or gained, the curious relationship between language and reality, a father shooting his son's murderer, a man learning to "see" with the help of a blind man; in short, it is about the flotsam and jetsam, vagaries and varieties of daily life. It seems only fair to hold reality up to fiction and see how it compares.

This view of literature means that instead of being boring words on a page, literature pulses with the blood of life: if you're splattered with red droplets, you know you've read properly.
 

Note: because this is an online source, no page numbers are cited. Author's name must be included. If no author, use initial words of title for in-text citation. If a PDF version of file is available, use that version and cite page number.

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Other

Television
References Entry:

Smith, M. (Writer & Producer), & Campbell, M. (Executive Director).

(2003).  Truth, war, and consequences. [Television

series episode]. In D. Fanning (Executive Producer), Frontline.

Boston: WBGH.

 
In-text citation for entry above
Summary
Sadly, as a report by Frontline shows (2003), Americans were misled by their government, and the result is a war that has brought suffering here and abroad, and contributed little to the anti-terrorism effort.

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Radio/TV Transcript (Note: Lexis Nexis provides transcripts for the most popular media outlets)
References Entry:
Letters sent to president Dwight D. Eisenhower on the Brown

vs. Board of Education Decision. (2004, May 17). All Things

Considered. [Radio News Program]. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis.

Note: if no author, as above, use title of work.

In-text citation for entry above
Direct Quote
The racial hypocrisy of 1950s America is readily seen in a letter by Ann Grinham to President Eisenhower protesting the Brown v. Board of Education decision (Letters, 2004). She writes “Of course we believe in equal rights. Educate the Negroes, give them advantages, but by all means, keep them to themselves.” Her comments, of course, raise an obvious question: how does being kept to yourself reconcile with equal rights?

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Government Publication (ARTICLE IN BOOK)
References Entry
U.S. State Department. (1994). County reports on human rights

practices for 1993: Iraq. In County Reports on Human Rights

Practices for 1993 (pp. 1184-1193). Washington, DC: U.S.

Government Printing Office.

In-text citation for entry above
Summary
The United States State Department (1993) concluded that Iraq's human rights did not reach accepted standards (U. S. State Department, 1994).  At this time, it did not suggest going to war to help the country improve its human rights standards.

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