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MATH 156: Introduction to Statistics


Course Title

MATH 156: Introduction to Statistics

Course Description

An introductory level course for non-mathematics majors who need or desire a working knowledge of statistics. This course is oriented towards all fields in which statistics finds applications. Topics include: summarizing data, probability, normal and binomial distributions, hypothesis testing, confidence intervals and correlation.


Prereq: MATH 012 or MATH 023 with a grade of C or higher, or Mathematics placement requiring no remediation. ENGL 095 with a grade of C or higher, or English placement requiring no remediation.

Coreq: None

Required Text and Other Materials

In this course, you will be required to use different technologies and resources to complete problems more efficiently. Use of a TI-84Plus/TI-83Plus calculator is recommended. Your text resources include technology guides for TI-84Plus/TI-83Plus, MINITAB, Microsoft Excel, and SPSS. These guides give specific hints for using the technologies, and also provide lab activities to help as you explore various statistical concepts.

Learning Outcomes

  • Develop the student’s use of basic statistical tools needed to summarize and analyze data from real problems.
  • Develop the student’s awareness of the use of statistics in experimental procedures and decision making.
  • Recognize sampling methods and levels of data.
  • Explain statistical terms.
  • Interpret descriptive statistics.
  • Illustrate statistical information using appropriate graphs.
  • Apply appropriate probability formulas.
  • Compare different probability distributions.
  • Construct confidence intervals.
  • Perform appropriate hypothesis tests.
  • Apply correlation and regression analysis to bi-variable data.

General Education Goals

  • Quantitative Knowledge and Skills
  • Technological Competency
  • Ethical Reasoning and Action
  • Independent/Critical Thinking

Course Outline

  • Module 1. An Introduction to Statistics and Data
  • Module 2. Graphically Summarizing Data
  • Module 3. Numerically Summarizing Data
  • Module 4. Basic Probability and Counting Techniques
  • Module 5. Random Variables and Discrete Probability Distributions
  • Module 6. Normal Probability Distributions and Sampling Distributions
  • Module 7. Confidence Intervals for the Mean
  • Module 8. Confidence Intervals for the Mean Continued
  • Module 9. Answering Questions about a Single Population Parameter
  • Module 10. Answering Questions about Two Population Parameters
  • Module 11. Scatter Diagrams, Correlation, and Linear Regression Analysis
  • Module 12. Advanced Topics in Linear Regression
  • Module 13. The Chi-Square Distribution and Hypothesis Tests
  • Module 14. The F-Distribution and Hypothesis Tests
  • Module 15. Nonparametric Hypothesis Tests

Evaluation of Student


Individual Value



15 Discussions

100 points, 1.93%

1500 points


15 Assignments

100 points, 2.66%

1500 points


15 Quizzes

100 points, 2%

1500 points


Readiness Activities

100 points


Grading Scale


Quality Points

Point Range









Very Good








Above Average








Below Average



59 & below





Statement of Plagiarism

Plagiarism is the use of another writer’s words or ideas without disclosure of the source. All essays and papers submitted by students for credit in all courses at Ocean County College must make honest and full disclosure of any sources used, including but not limited to books, print articles, films, and other media, the Internet, and professional or non-professional co- writers. Failure to make full disclosure of sources will subject students to penalties prescribed by Plagiarism Policy #5180 (PDF)

Plagiarism means taking words or ideas from a source without documenting them.

Any words (even one or two) taken from a source and included in your own work need to be in quotation marks and documented. There may exceptions to this (common knowledge), but when in doubt, use quotation marks and document or check with your instructor


When you get an idea from source, be it from an article, lecture, person, etc., it must be documented – even if you put it in your own words (and if you use the same words, they must be in quotation marks)


The person, book, article from which you obtained information Documenting

Following a particular documentation/citation style such as MLA or APA to let the reader know where you acquired your information

At Ocean County College, academic dishonesty is not only considered unethical, but additionally, it is a detriment to student success both in college and afterwards. Each course offered at Ocean County College is outlined in a course description and an important part of this document is the “Course Objectives.” Course objectives are the benefits that are earned by the student for having taken the course. Academic dishonesty is behavior that impedes mastery of these objectives and leaves the student without the benefit of the course.

Plagiarism may be accidental or blatant and there is even self-plagiarism. Students are held to the same standards whether or not they knew they were plagiarizing or whether or not they were plagiarizing themselves or someone else.

Unintended Plagiarism

It is the student's obligation to be certain that he or she comprehend the difference between quoting and paraphrasing, The student must also be sure to properly cite any and all material he or she is using from another source.


Deliberate plagiarism is knowingly presenting material in the course as your own. This type of academic dishonesty is not limited only to papers, but can be in discussion boards, exams, quizzes, e-mails, presentations, or any other work created for the course. This includes turning in borrowed or bought research papers as one's own.


Submitting a whole or portions of a paper that was previously used in any other capacity is plagiarism even if the student is the author of the original paper. Be certain that your work is not only original for each assignment, but also created specifically for the course you are submitting it to. “Recycling” your old papers is plagiarism.

Statement of Civility

The Statement of Civility can also be found on our Campus Civility page.

Ocean County College defines civility primarily as the demonstration of respect for others, basic courtesy, reciprocity (treating others as we wish to be treated), and behaviors that create a positive environment in which to learn and to work.

The Trustees of the College and the College Administration set the tone for civil behavior through their professional conduct and through their leadership of the institution. All members of the college community create a positive environment characterized by considerate and principled conduct.

While no civility statement can guarantee considerate and principled conduct, the values set forth herewith represent institutional ideals and should serve as guide post:

    1. Respect for the work of all persons.
    2. Courteous discourse (oral, verbal, non-verbal, and electronic).
    3. Honest interactions and utterances.
    4. Fair and just treatment.
    5. Integrity and keeping promises.
    6. Commitment to the community college philosophy: Access, transfer, career preparation, workforce development, partnering, and community outreach. See our Mission/Vision page.
    7. Open professional communications.
    8. Diversity, professionalism, and collegiality.
    9. Free expression of views without meanness or a desire to do harm.
    10. Tolerance of differing points of view.
    11. Zero tolerance for all forms of cyber stalking, cyber bullying, or cyber sexual harassment (see the Attorney General’s letter).
    12. A culture of honor that enhances our student’s ethical and moral development and clearly communicates and consistently adheres to the definitions of and sanctions for academic dishonesty.

These ideals are consistently modeled by those in leadership positions-in the administration, staff, faculty, and student body-and should provide direction for all members of the college community.

Campus Resources and Services

Tutoring is available online accessible from your course menu. You will have an initial two-hour block of time in which you can always add more. Additional resources available to you are the OCC Counseling Center, and Library.

Statement of Accommodation

If there is any student in this class who has special needs because of learning disabilities or other kinds of disabilities, please feel free to discuss this with your professor or a staff member in the Center for Student Success at 732-255-0456.

Reasonable academic adjustments (also known as classroom and testing accommodations) are those changes that will minimize or eliminate the impact of a disability and allow equal access to information presented. In a collaborative process, the DS staff and the student will develop an ADA/504 Accommodation Plan for reasonable and appropriate accommodations that are supported by the documentation of disability provided by the student.

Examples of some academic accommodations are:

    • Extended testing time
    • Recording of class lectures
    • Sign language interpreters for the deaf
    • Note takers and/or readers
    • Adaptive software

For more information and how to apply for an Accommodation, please visit the Accomodations page.

Process Note: Instructors who receive an Accommodation Plan from their student must notify Elearning via email to


Ocean County College reserves the right to alter syllabi without prior notification. Please contact your instructor if you have any questions regarding syllabi content.

All individuals should not assume that anything received, sent, or stored in this course or in any course is private. Students' written work, assignments, and test results may be used anonymously for college assessment purposes. Course content, support materials, and communications (including chats, discussions, emails, and any other forms of communication) may be used for quality assurance purposes by authorized college administrators.

Important Notes

Office 365 is the official email communication for students at OCC (

Failure to pay for this course may result in being dropped for non-payment.

Rules for Online Netiquette

In all course communications, treat others how you would like to be treated. Keep in mind that people have different senses of humor, come from various backgrounds, cultures, experiences, and upbringings. By always following the points below, you are communicating respectfully and you’re more likely to receive a positive response:


    • Greet your reader at the start of the message by using his or her name, e.g. Hello Jeff
    • Let your recipient know who you are
    • Inform your reader what course number and section you’re referring to
    • Use appropriate grammar and punctuation
    • Always say please and thank you
    • Be polite and professional
    • Apologize. Sometimes our messages can come out unclear and convey the wrong message, or even cause a misunderstanding. Once you apologize, try to clarify and put it past you.
    • Conclude your message with your name.
    • Be positive! You can make a big difference in someone’s life by just bringing your recipient a simple smile. 😀
    • Typos


    • Sarcasm or cynicism
    • Satires
    • ALL CAPITAL letters
    • !!!, ???, ?!?!?!?! - Excessive use of exclamation points and/or question marks.
    • Bold
    • Use vulgar or obscene language
    • Use racially, religiously, or sexually offensive language
    • Write like you text (with acronyms like LOL, ROFL, OMG)
    • General questions: use discussion forums
    • Personal questions: use e-mail
    • Having strong feelings?
    • Draft, sleep on it, and then revise. And sleep on it one more time…
    • If you’re looking to be heard and taken seriously, do not use confrontation. You are more likely to be heard and helped if your recipient empathizes with your request.
    • Anything you write online whether in an assignment, discussion, or email can be forwarded to others, be made publicly available online, or printed out. Therefore:
    • Be careful with what you include in your message such as sharing things that are too personal.
    • Avoid forwarding messages you have received, unless the sender has given you written permission to do so.
    • Do not include usernames, passwords, or any other sensitive information.


Privacy Policy

The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) of 1974, which became effective November 19, 1974 sets out requirements designed to protect the privacy of students.

Specifically, the stature governs (1) access to records, and (2) the release of such records. OCC’s Student Privacy Policy

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