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Works Cited Entry Rereading America

Moore, Michael. “Idiot Nation.” Rereading America. Eds. Gary Colombo,

Robert Cullen, and Bonnie Lisle. Boston: St. Martin's, 2004.

153-170. Print.

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Sarcasm can be used effectively to make an argument. When Michael Moore writes “Who cares if 70 percent of those who graduate from America's colleges are not required to learn a foreign language? Isn't the rest of the world speaking English now?” (157), he humorously exposes the ignorance of our views both of other countries and our education system.

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Michael Moore laments the misguided priorities of our elected officials when it comes to education. He notes that

the political leaders – and the people who vote for them – have decided it's a bigger priority to build another bomber than to educate our children. They would rather hold hearings about the depravity of a television show called Jackass than about their own depravity in neglecting our schools [ . . . ] and maintaining our title as Dumbest Country on Earth. (156)

This misguided use of money and intellect is part of the problem with the education system in this country.

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History Textbook (Anthology)

Works Cited Entry Sources of the Western Tradition

Sallust. "Moral Deterioration." Sources of the Western Tradition.

Eds. Marvin Perry, Joseph R. Peden, and Theodore H. Von Laue.

Boston:  Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003. 123-125. Print.

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One connection between the decline of the American Empire and the decline of the Roman Empire is corrupting influence of money.  The Roman writer Sallust traced the cause of the moral decay to a "Growing love of money, and the lust for power which followed it [. . . .] Ambition tempted many to be false, to have one thought hidden in their hearts, another ready on their tongues, to become a man's friend or enemy not because they judged him worthy or unworthy but because they thought it would pay them, and to put on the semblance of virtues that they had not" (124).  We see this in too many of our elected officials and citizens, as they profess their "faith" and "piety," yet arrange for special deals that line their pockets with greenbacks while ignoring the public good.

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Literature textbook (Anthology)

Works Cited Entry The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces

(Follow this format for other literature anthologies)

Aristophanes. Lysistrata The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces

Eds. Sarah Lawall et al. 2 vols. New York: Norton, 1999.

647-726. Print.

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The colloquial translation of Lysistrata by Douglass Parker is indicated by such lines as “Relax, honey” (650). 

Twentieth Century (Or contemporary) Literary Criticism (Anthology)

Works Cited Entry

Boxer, David and Cassandra Phillips. From "’Will You Please Be Quiet,

Please?’: Voyeurism, Dissociation, and the Art of Raymond Carver."

Iowa Review 10 (1979): 75-90. Rprt. In “Raymond Carver.”

Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Sharon R. Gunton and Jean C.

Stue. Vol. 22. Detroit: Gale Research, 1982. 98-101. Print.

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The critics David Boxer and Cassandra Phillips also note Carver’s seeming lack of style. They write that "[. . .] what seems to be casual talk, virtually empty of communication, is really very deliberately and finely wrought" (99). This emphasis on the craft of his fiction – it is “deliberately and finely wrought” – underscores the nature of Carver’s oxymoronic talent: he made conversation seem so natural that it seems to merely record what is being said.

Anthology Series (Taking SidesOpposing Viewpoints, etc.)

Works Cited Entry Opposing Viewpoints

Marsh, Daniel L. "America's Values Are Found in Its Documents." American

Values: Opposing Viewpoints. Ed. David L. Bender. San Diego:

Greenhaven Press, 1989. 17-25. Print.

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For our political system to function, our electorate needs a basic understanding of the underpinnings of democracy. Daniel L. Marsh, former president of Boston College, argues that Americans "must have an intelligent comprehension of the ideas and ideals that underlie our [. . .] democracy" (18). His emphasis on "intelligent comprehension" supports the view that the dreaded civics class needs to be revitalized.

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Material by Editor in an Anthology

Works Cited Entry

Cooper, Charles and Susan Peck MacDonald, eds. Writing the World.

Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000. Print.

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To fully engage in American culture, Charles Cooper and Susan Peck MacDonald  write, "means entering the conversation finding out what others think, figuring out what you think, and gaining a deeper understanding of the world you live in" (1).


Works Cited Entry

Hirsch, E. D. Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know.

New York: Vintage Books, 1987. Print.

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E. D. Hirsch warns that focusing only on a particular trade or field can ultimately limit a person's career choices: "Narrow vocational training in one state of a technology will not enable a person to read manuals that explain new developments in the same technology.  In modern life we need general knowledge that enables us to deal with new ideas, events, and challenges" (11).  Embracing all the knowledge that a culture offers, including literature, music, art, mathematics, history, and the sciences, amounts to job security, because it gives students the skills to face any intellectual — or employment —  challenge. 

Magazine (Print)

Works Cited Entry

Levinson, Marc and Rich Thomas. "One Tax Fits All." Newsweek 15 January

1996: 36. Print.

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A flat tax rate sounds like a good idea, but as Marc Levinson and Rich Thomas argue, it would amount to higher taxes for the working class, and no taxes at all for the leisure class — those people who live off money handed down to them (36).

Newspaper (Print)

Works Cited Entry

James, Caryn. "Dysfunction Wears Out Its Welcome." New York Times 3

December 1995: H1+. Print.

If source was in a numbered section, use the following format which adds the word "sec."

James, Caryn. "Dysfunction Wears Out Its Welcome." New York Times 3

December 1995, sec. 3:1+. Print.

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After analyzing current sitcoms, Caryn James discovers that "[. . .] they have come to resemble melodrama and soap opera more than they reflect comic versions of real life" (1).


(note: usually only signed articles are acceptable for academic essays)

Works Cited Entry

Frueh, Christopher B. "Posttraumatic Stress Disorder."  Encyclopedia of

Psychology. Ed. E. Kazdin. 6 vols. New York: Oxford University Press,

2000.  249-251. Print.

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Psychologists note that one of the main features of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is that the "event is persistently reexperienced" (249).

Book with Two or More Authors

Works Cited Entry

Phelps, Timothy and Helen Winternitz. Capital Games. New York: Harper

Perennial, 1993. Print.

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In their examination of the Anita Hill and Clarence Thomas controversy, Timothy Phelps and Helen Winternitz come to the ominous conclusion that either "a Supreme Court justice had committed perjury to get himself on the bench or Hill and his opponents had engaged in an unprecedented criminal conspiracy in an attempt to defeat him" (441). From the evidence in their book, it seems that someone has committed perjury.